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Most recent reference:

Donald M. Bers, Chris W. Patton and Richard Nuccitelli A Practical Guide to the Preparation of Ca2+ Buffers, Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 99, p1-26, Calcium in Living Cells, 2010. XLS files. PDF copy available upon request: cpatton@stanford.edu

Earlier papers:

Patton, Thompson and Epel. "Some precautions in using chelators to buffer metals in biological solutions." Cell Calcium. 35/5 pp. 427-431, 2004. PDF copy available upon request: cpatton@stanford.edu

Methods Cell Biol. 1994; 40:3-29, Academic Press; San Diego. A Practical Guide to the Study of Ca2+ in Living Cells. Chapter is: A Practical Guide to the Preparation of Ca Buffers. Donald Bers, Chris Patton, and Richard Nuccitelli. (subplanted by the top reference)

The programs change. Always state which version of the programs you are using.

I would appreciate it if you would mention the URL to MAXC: maxchelator.stanford.edu

Papers used to help build the MAXC programs:

1) Bers, D.M. A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions. Am. J. Physiol., 242:C404-C408, 1982.

2) Brook & Storey, Analytical Biochemistry 201. 119-126 (1992), Bound and Determined: A computer program for making buffers of defined Ion Concentrations. [see other programs section to retrieve a copy of this program, BAD]

3) Fabiato & Fabiato, J. Physiol, Paris, 1979, 75, 463-505, Calculator programs for computing the composition of solutions containing multiple metals and ligands used for experiments in skinned muscle cells.

4) Harrison & Bers, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 925 (1987) 133-143, The effect of temperature and ionic strength on the apparent Ca-affinity of EGTA and the analogous Ca-chelators BAPTA and dibromo-BAPTA.

5) Harrison, S.M. and D.M. Bers. Correction of absolute stability constants of EGTA for temperature and ionic strength. Am. J. Physiol. 256:C1250-C1256, 1989.

6) Martell and Smith, Critical Stability Constants, 1974 for volume 1 now up to volume 6?

7) Good, Biochemistry, 1966, 5, 467-477, Hydrogen Ion Buffers for Biological Research.

8) Schoenmakers, Visser, Flik and Theuvenet, BioTechniques v12, #6 (1992) 870-879, CHELATOR: An Improved Method for Computing Metal Ion Concentrations in Physiological Solutions. [see other programs section to retrieve a copy of this program, Chelator]

9) McGuigan, Kay, Elder and Luthi, Magnesium Research (2007 ) 20(1)72-81, Comparison between measured and calculated ionised concentrations in Mg2+/ATP, Mg2+/EDTA and Ca2+/EGTA buffers; influence pf changes in temperature, pH and pipetting errors on the ionised concentrations.

Chris Patton: cpatton@stanford.edu